Longer Healthy Life
© Copyright 2011 Ty Parr, Ph.D.(All Rights Reserved) Updated 30Apr2011
You might reasonably ask why a web site dedicated to your heath is covering Ecology. The answer is simple. Sharing the best of human knowledge to promote health alone will do very little good if you do not have the resources and the healthy environment to take advantage of this very important health knowledge. In a simple way, these are not unrelated topics as they impact what opportunities you and your offspring have to maintain your health and extend your lives.
OVERPOPULATION & ECOLOGY
RESPONSIBLE & IRRESPONSIBLE POPULATION CONTROL
Many psychologically damaged humans have a further need to dominate and misuse others by directing and controlling (exploiting) the efforts of others. We will explore further the need for resource and power control with respect to the number of humans on the planet and the destruction of the wild ecosystem that supports life on this planet. The reason for this is the current drive of certain "so called elite groups" that are intent on drastically lowering the human population by both convert and overt means. This basically means culling the human herd of many of you and your children, a real concern for your health. This is usually coupled with FEAR MONGERING about how we are running out of energy, food, or some other critical resource and only seconds away from collapse. This nonsense will be put to rest here.
People are not evenly spread in the world, they are concentrated in specific areas:
But we're polluted the world
From these maps, we see that the major population areas of the world are China and India. Surprisingly enough, the major pollution areas of the world are not India, but China, the United States, and Europe - in that order. Clearly numbers alone don't pollute with fuel burning, but they do place a drastic pressure on the native habitat's ecology and the animals living in the local ecosystem. Even that is very different than density packing of humans, as we can see below with the major extinction hotspot dangers in the world.
This is not to say that major displacement of animals from ecosystems did not occur in areas like the American prairies (bison, etc.) when the huge tide of settlers displaced both indians and animals. Historical patterns of human settlement almost always interfere with and decline the number of large animals as well as alter the local plant species abundance.
After seeing this, it is rather hard to imagine the lowly populated regions like the rather dry American west or even all of the USA as sources of major extinction. It is only partly our numbers that are causing biologic extinction rises, but it is mostly our massively polluting industries (agricultural fertilizer runoff, animal farming sewage, coal fired energy plants, auto exhaust, etc.). This is in spite of the fact that the world is currently in a major human driven extinction of animals phase.
I am in favor of limiting overall human population, but by means that make each person on earth aware of the dangers and call forth a shared sacrifice that can be enforced by tax penalties for more than 2 children. This can be done through our tax code by drastic increase in tax required for more than 2 children and increasing with each additional child. Two children will just about "level" population at the 6-7 billion humans now on the planet. This tax must be fairly administered, so we will :'grandfather' in pre-existing larger families without taxing them. However, all new additions over 2 children should be taxed a very high rate (say 30% of income for 3 and 5% increase for each additional). This will out rage some people, but we will have to address this problem sometime. Better that it be an open, thoughtful shared sacrifice approach then some hidden or wildly genocidal method that is almost always chosen by elites who try hide their intents behind FEAR MONGERING lies and their desire to grab a larger share of resources while not really focused on sustainable ecology. Their focus is almost always on more total resources for themselves. Power has always been and will always be about CONTROL OF RESOURCES.
We can live a very good and rich human life with our communications and computers and idea driven progress. We need to do long term studies before dumping potential danger on ourselves and our children. Our damage by INNOVATIVE IGORNANCE is often discovered only much later, a mechanism that has been apparent throughout all human history. We saw this clearly in the just covered DON'Ts section. The strength of this computer revolution in communications is that we can now have global reach. This eliminates the limitations of limited local awareness.
What you will never hear from these people is that the entire world could be fed with the extremely nutritious single cell primitive algae Spirulina optimally grown in an area half the physical size of the US State of Indiana but located in the high solar energy areas of the American southwest. See the solar energy map below. Naturally, we would get rather tired of a diet of only the remarkably nutritious health promoting Spirulina, but I hope this gives you an idea that even with some 6-7 billion people on this earth, we could easily feed that population. This is a mismatch in our technologies and in our awareness, not an intrinsic limitation of the earth. We just don't have to exterminate the remaining animals and wreck ecosystems just to feed us. This is just fear mongering of the powerful, seeking an ever larger share of resources.
Microscopic concatenated cell spirals ......................... Mats of tangled Spirals
WHAT IT TAKES TO FEED THE WHOLE WORLD
What can spirulina be used for in our diet? A safe replacement for almost all our vitamin and mineral supplements ! This is as close as we will ever come to a "complete human food". All nutritional authorities insist that there are no "complete foods" that will maximally support all stages of human growth. A small supplemental level of this wonderful food can act as an insurance policy to make sure you are getting all of the various need antioxidants Vitamins A, B's (possible exception of Vit B12 - controversy if human form available), C, E, carotenes (lycopene, a&b carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptosporin), ,w-3 & w-6 lipids along with gamma-linoleic acids, minerals (high in Fe, Mg, Ca, with Cr, Iodine, and various trace elements), phycocyanin reputed to be anticancer, as well as the very well established properties of being antioxidant, anti-bacterial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic as well as other beneficial properties for health. As little as one ounce of Spirulina and perhaps some under the tongue Vitamin B12 lozenges and Vitamin D if you do not get enough sunlight and you have a "Nutritional Insurance Policy 2 " of superior health that complements the "Nutritional Insurance Policy 1 " which was concerned with increasing the beneficial bacteria in your colon that will naturally produce and donate to your nutrition B vitamins (including Vitamin B12) and small chain fatty acids like butyrate that feed your colon cells and prevent colon cancer. Oh yes, they also optimize your immunity and normalize blood sugar. Eating lots of "whole foods" (not processed to destroy nutrients) like fresh vegetables and fruits with healthy levels and types of protein and fats in addition will reinforce both these "Nutritional Insurance Policies". SPIRULINA IS A REAL "WHOLE FOOD" THAT SUPPLIES THE GOODIES. No more endless taking of second rate expensive vitamins and mineral pills and tablets. Make "WHOLE FOODS" your diet and YOU WILL SUPPRESS ALMOST ALL THE DISEASES THAT ARE NOW COMMONPLACE. See more on this in the DIET II section of Longer Healthy Life (http://www.longerhealthylife.net).
More on Food Production
In the Brazilian rainforest, there are many local patches of very dark soils that the modern Brazilians call "terra preta do indio" (the dark soil of the indians - actually "preta" translates to ghosts or unknown earlier inhabitants). This comprises some 1-10% of the whole Amazon valley). These patches of soil are so productive for growing plants that they are used as potting soil today. This "dark soil of the indians" is dark because the indians in the Amazon basin burned their agricultural waste only to charcoal and the worked this along with the charcoalized broken bones of dead animals, broken pottery, fish bones, agricultural waste, and feces into the soil. Charcoal is made from woody type materials that are heated to some 400o F but not subjected to actual burning - just carbonized. This can be done by primitive people by just covering burning material with dirt to limit oxygen levels. This creation of dark earth process ended after 1542 when a Spanish explorer named Francisco de Orellana traveled from Peru down the Amazon River meeting and inadvertently infecting these people with smallpox, influenza, and measles. Orellana, who was the leader and sole survivor of this down river journey wrote a book describing the Amazon basin as having millions of inhabitants. In 1617, explorers going up river found only primitive hunter gatherer tribes of low population density and no huge agricultural populations. Almost all of these millions of inhabitants died of the diseases to which they had no immunity.
The soil comparison below shows the differences between the "normal" vs Terra preta soil of the Amazon. Note the presence of broken pottery shards in the black soil. The charcoal from partial burning was then worked into the soil to as high as 40% charcoal levels. The plant tube structure was not damaged at a micro level when burned to charcoal, so huge amounts of new surface area was created. This could hold water, serve as a permanent home for soil bacteria, and bind minerals and organic compounds in the soil. "Normal good soil" has large amounts of humus (decaying plant debris) that serves asa habitat, food, and a replenishment of what minerals were taken out of the soil by growing plants. Normal good soil also has a rich diversity of microbes, worms, etc. Under tropical conditions, this leaf litter is rapidly digested by soil microbes and lost into the ground water due to the poor retention of the soil. Charcoal structures are not consumed by soil microbes but serve as homes, collectors of minerals and organic acids and released plant decay molecules. This builds a potentially healthy ecosystem that plants can then manipulate by rewarding microbes beneficial to the plant with glucose while gaining minerals that are made available by these microbes. This results in a permanent structure to conserve any valuable minerals and fertilizer that should land on this Terra preta. This contrasts with our current Western high use of costly fertilizer, herbicides, and pesticides that runs off through the ground to the ground water and then to pollute our rivers and oceans.
The red dots on the map of terra preta sites only touches the surface of the extensive distribution of these rich growing regions scattered all over the Amazon basin. These sites have been studied.
Agricultural yields from Terra preta are enormously larger than that of the same unfertilized section of normal Amazon soil. This remains so despite nearly 500 years since the last application of charcoal to the soil and all the torrential rains that have taken place in the Amazon since then. Terra preta has remained the most desirable "potting soil" in all of Brazil and is routinely collected and removed for people's gardening needs. Yields can be triple that of ordinary Amazon soil.
Modern agricultural experts have realized that the soils of the Amazon are VERY poor soils that support only some jungle plants but cannot grow needed crops, except for the "dark soil of the indians". No additional charcoal was added from this late 1500 AD time, but the dark soils are a marvel of biological productivity today. This is an essence of a sustainable long term heath of the agricultural land on this earth. Contrast this to the stupid over application of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides that pollute and turn our river adjacent ocean areas into eutrophic then anoxic dead zones. Compare this to the massive and expensive high use of oil energy to produce food in the USA. These foolish monocroping and costly oil produced fertilizers and poisons go first in to the water table and then run off in the rivers to poison oceans. Which society do you think was more of a good gardner taking care of his land? This earth is our only home. We will NOT be colonizing new planets to pollute in the long term future. We must become gardner's and caretakers who do not destroy the riches of the land, as have so many civilizations now long dead.
Terra preta is so fertile that it's been prized by Brazilian farmers for centuries. Somehow the prehistoric Amazonians had transformed the world's worst soil into some of the best. The Secret of El Dorado
All over the world there are groups working to bring this technique of adding charcoal and other long term slow delivery nutrients to the soil which seems to massively boost even poor soils to the quality of very productive agricultural soil ( Science Daily,). The Terra preta soil is still massively productive since the last charcoal additions ending in the late 1540's . The secret here is the ability of charcoal to support soil bacteria that condition and produce nutrients available to plants. This charcoal also retains valuable minerals and water as well as drastically lowering the amounts of needed fertilizer. This black earth has been intensely studied at Cornell University, and all over the world groups are exploring this as a solution. This process of sequestering charcoal in the soil also offers solution to the problem of CO2 emissions. Soil is the largest terrestrial pool of sequestered or trapped carbon. This method may apply more to croplands than forested lands because it lowers the soil humus (not yet degraded cellulose and such) levels in forests. It also will trap the lower levels of applied fertilizers that often just pass through the soil and collect in the deeper ground water (as pollution). This expensive over fertilization ultimately runs off into the sea to cause unsustainable algae blooms. These excessive fertilizer runoff created ocean algae blooms remove all oxygen from the water with a die off of fish and other oxygen requiring organisms. There are huge areas of the world's oceans that suffer from this fertilizer runoff and consequent loss of oxygen and biologic diversity. Our oceans now have enormous regions of anoxic (low oxygen level) "dead zones" that are a direct consequence of this stupid and expensive over fertilization. This ecologic damage to our soils by more pesticides and expensive fertilizers along with damage to our oceans could be minimized by the binding capacity of charcoal carbon in our soils.
You can see YouTube Videos on the modern application of this bio-char technique in Australia
The US lags in this Terra preta application, but efforts are underway. See Permaculture USA
Below is an illustration of world soil degradation. Please notice that the Amazon valley is either stable or partially degraded by more modern methods of agriculture like slash an burn that cannot be very effective with the very poor soils in the Amazon basin. A pity that the modern fools who are degrading the Amazon soils for quick profit do not have the knowledge or the wisdom of the earlier inhabitants. Notice also that huge sections of very fertile soils are in a very degraded status, we can correct this and have soils that last for at least 500 years if we adapt the techniques of the Terra preta to the world's different conditions. We don't have to suffer the loss of soil productivity that has been the fate of nearly every now long gone civilization. We must think like gardeners of our earth.
We must stop our stupid and expensive mono crop farming with damaging fertilizer,herbicide, & pesticide runoff and institute a biological model of using successive biologically smart methods that recycle and restore soil fertility and bounty. The absence of this good sense has reached a pinnacle in GM food. GM plants are resistant to poisons that are designed to kill everything growing except the favored crop. As you know from the DON'Ts I section, by about 3 years the weeds become resistant by taking up the genes from the GM (genetically modified) crops and then farmers must use extremely poisonous weed killers that are toxic to us. Approximately 90% of industrial pesticides and herbicides are also epigenetic poisons that cause inherited genetic effects on our children, and their children and onward. A perfect industrial idiot solution, kill the living soil that produces such bounty so that we may support the profit motive of Monsanto and the political/military control objectives that lie behind it. Remember this is not for higher yields (yields are lower!) Its is also not healthy for animals or humans to eat. Destroying our only earth to have total control, Brilliant (NOT !!).
This pollution poisoning of our oceans is neither a small expense in production of food nor a small consequence to the health of our planet. Almost always such unwise behavior is about STUPID PROFIT AND GREED for some benighted exploiters at the expense of our common earth. Whatever happened to the old idea of SMART BENEFICIAL PROFIT AND GREED? Below is a world picture of the locations of these ocean "dead zones". Often, the only living things in these hypoxic-eutrophic zones are bacteria and jellyfish. Welcome to the new oceans.
If you couple this black soil technique with enough energy to desalt even a very very small percentage of ocean water, you have a garden everywhere on this earth. Does this sound like a famine? Overpopulation? Famines are usually related to economic greed as well as agricultural setbacks that provide the excuse for enormous inhumane exploitation. The occurrence of famines is mostly a needless political driven intensification of local agricultural failures. Most of this famine nonsense is largely FEAR MONGERING by self interested sources as well as intentional acts by powerful interests to produce such. Great profits and needless human cruelty can occur when people are desperate to survive.
But, we're running out of energy
The problem with non-linear, complex and tightly coupled processes is that they often fail in ways that were not predicted. For example, in the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident, it was quite a while before the reason that cooling water was not cooling the core was established. A series of failures that melted the core and caused another (not expected) hydrogen gas over pressure and explosion in the damaged reactor was the consequences of a complex non-linear tightly coupled system that is accident prone . The ideas behind this linear vs complex tight coupled systems differences are well covered in the excellent book "Normal Accidents(Living with High-Risk Technologies)" by Charles Perrow (1984). There is also an excellent Wiki article on Systems Risk that is based on this fundamental work. I prefer to stay with linear, easily disentangled, and minimally catastrophic mechanisms. The alternative of a "system accident" with "unanticipated interaction of multiple failures" in a complex system does not appeal to me . This is especially so with such catastrophic and long term biological consequences caused by radioactive contamination. The explosive destruction of only three strategically located nuclear reactors in the continental US would make most of the entire country uninhabitable for multiple life times. Some risks are not worth the potential reward.
I also don't find much favor with wind and solar power as they are intermittent and rather unreliable, and have to be stored in some type of battery or energy reservoir. Additionally, they do not yield high energy amounts(solar) or are prone to destroying birds and bats (wind). They each have their place in some situations, but we need something more reliable and with higher energy yielding sources.
Notice how the world map major heat spots mostly line up with the boundaries of the tectonic plates. Tectonic plates are major crustal earth structures that travel as a whole. Needless to say, we would not have to invade other countries and would have local resources and good jobs from this. While not distributed evenly over the whole world, a little commercial cooperation and the normal specialization in production advantage of different societies would produce an abundance of world energy and a good economy. This would be best served by a cooperative peaceful world that is seeking to live on this beautiful blue orb without destroying the rest of the ecology and trashing the planet with poisons. The Philippines, located on the geological ring of fire at these plate boundaries, already gets most of its electricity from geothermal energy .
The map of existing geothermal power plants gives an idea that this is not some unworkable idea, these plants are producing now. Many of these do not use the very deep drilling but have much geothermal water or heating much nearer the surface.
After Fukushima, do we really need any more nuclear reactors to pad the profit of corporations - that will only bring us a radioactive contaminated world? After you have seen that we can supply all our electrical need with geothermal energy which is nearly inexhaustible, do we really need any nuclear reactors at all? Some might say that each nation must have it's own secure electrical generation ability, just in case of war or energy blackmail. In the world of the future, war is just too destructive and rationality will be needed to ensure we can avoid using energy as political power to compel. Much of current American foreign policy was set by Henry Kissinger's comment that "If you control oil, you control politics, and if you control food you control the world". Thus, we can see our stupid oil wars and our biologically insane Genetically Modified Foods as efforts to perpetuate a failing control over the world. Instead of building a constructive world, the American government has chosen to grab oil supplies and foment takeovers of oil rich countries to keep a tenuous grasp on the vestiges of world hegemony. That hegemony evaporated when the USA industrial base was out sourced to China for a little more profit for the rich. All that is left is the naked and evil use of lies and military aggression to prop up lost power. There is ample energy that is relatively ecologically harmless via geothermal. Shortly we will cover that the USA is the new Saudi Arabia of the world, due to the Bakken formation in North Dakota. All of this human harm on a delusional idea put forward by powerful interests to keep up their world harming profits. One sometimes wonders if evil greed rather than intelligence runs the world.
USA has a large number of nuclear reactors and also some seismic faults that could be problems in the future. Below is a map of nuclear reactors (including fault zones in USA) and a map of accumulated high level nuclear waste in storage. Note that the storage is between 100-8440 metric tons of high level waste that must be constantly cooled or it will boil off the water and go afire - and this condition will continue for hundreds of thousands of years.
NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS WORLD
Google Maps at Gaurdian Site
Notice that almost all nuclear power plants are located in the Northern Hemisphere. In the event of an electrical grid failure due to a solar flare or other huge grid damaging event that prevents rapid recovery of power status, nuclear power plants usually only have 8 hours of batteries and some 3 days of diesel or propane energy production to cool the reactor AND the HUGE pile of stored used highly radioactive fuel rods that must also be cooled on a continuous basis. This cooling is not for a few weeks or months, but effectively a hundred times as long as organized human civilization has emerged till now (say 3000 BC till now). Plans to store high level nuclear waste in deep underground locations with encasement in some protective method have continually been put off for all the development of nuclear energy. We face the potential loss of the entire Northern Hemisphere as a livable environment for just as long if our cooling abilities fail in some natural or man-made calamity (nuclear war, etc.). It does not require a "rocket scientist" to recognize that any such calamity would make human life possible only in the Southern Hemisphere. This is a profit driven insanity by short sighted fools.
( the above graphics areused under “Fair Use” Rules for comment and critique)
A distribution modeling of airborne Cesium-137 (gamma(x-ray) emitter radionuclide) from Fukushima has been done by the European CERN laboratories. This covers the period of 13Mar-6April 2011. Note that ocean distribution is not shown in this picture. The amount of deposition from the jet stream delivery of this radioactive isotope to North America is modeled based on predicted air flows and estimated levels of radiation released at Fukushima. The deposition of radioactive Cs-137 (half life @ 30 years) is listed on the right side as Becquerels (number of disintegrations per second) per square meter of land area. This modeling ignores rain washing away the radioactive material and other such flows into the ground water (often the future drinking water). Using their values of Becquerels per second per per square meter, I have in the lower table calculated the number of disintegrations per hour and per day for the various values on the color chart. You will notice that the north western USA is mostly in the range of 40-251 disintegrations per second per square meter. When this is scaled up to hours and a day, you can get an idea of the magnitude of continuing radiation these regions wlll be subjected to. Notice that a large portion of Northern Honshu will be uninhabitable for many of the 30 year half lives (30 years to fall to half the counts). A good rule is that when have very dangerous levels of radioactivity, safety lies in 10 half lives expiring (300 years for Cs-137 an indirect gamma emitter with a 30 year half-life). CERN also included a modeling of the Chernobyl accident for Cs-137 dispersion that is included in the next figure. While the numbers may change somewhat, it is clear that high levels of Cs-137 fallout has been deposited on the USA in the Fukushima 'accident'. Surely, any rational self interested person will recognize the potential danger of this extremely long lasting dangerous folly. We have to end nuclear power and the greater folly of nuclear war before it ends us !
A major benefit of having copious relatively "free" geothermal energy is the ability to convert our vehicles to electricity and to desalinate a very very small percentage of total sea water (please no FEAR MONGERING that we will salt solidify the sea) that would turn the Western US into a garden. Right now, the governors of the western states are openly fighting over water allocations. The same garden effect would occur with all other dry areas like Northern Mexico, or almost anywhere else in the world. Only about 2.5-3% of all water on earth is potentially drinkable fresh water (in ice or liquid form) , and most of that is trapped in glaciers. Some 90% of all the ice (forming ice drives out most salt) on the globe is locked into Antarctica. Only 0.01% of earths water (about 10^18 meters^3) is in rivers or lakes. Desalinating seawater by pressure driven reverse osmosis (forget old heat wasting distilling methods) could remove a negligible fraction of this huge ocean reservoir. This would allow a massive abundance of water for the dry regions of the earth that are now minimally productive. If you doubt this, look at the 'irrigated crops' in the desert of northern Mexico. We do not have to accept a world as it is, of needless deserts, we can change it. OUR HUMAN HISTORY IS EXPLOITATION OF WHAT WAS MADE BY NATURE, WE HAVE TO TAKE OUR HAND AT CULTIVATING NATURE AND IMPROVING IT. Below is is a map of the rain fall patterns of the world. Imagine desalinating enough water to turn the deserts into gardens ("and the deserts will bloom"). Of course, we have to ensure we don't salinate (make salty) the land or ruin other ecosystems. In every case, we need to do careful studies of what we will be effecting by our actions. But most of all, we are not hapless victims. We have the ability to cultivate greater abundance of life on earth - like a smart gardner. Contrast this with the rapacious destructive exploitation of unfettered capitalism. We must cultivate this world, not destroy our only home for a counterproductive profit .
The whole of history of humans is finding a new set of hither to unconsidered resources when, by our short sighted exploitation, we run into shortage of our old "resources". What you can do depends on what you can imagine and create. We simply don't have to accept "what is" as "what must be". But, we do need to test and verify before we mess up other ecological aspects.
But we don't have enough oil to make this transition !
Contrary to the beliefs of most western geologists, scientific experiments has now established that oil can be created abiotically (not from biology) 20 to 40 miles deep within the earth without using organic remains of dead plants and animals. This is just an enlargement of the scope of the normal carbon cycle, only in this case the deep crustal anaerobic (oxygen free) reducing conditions strip descending carbonates of oxygen and link the carbons into hydrocarbons that trickle upward to be oxidized back to CO2 if they reach the surface. Rising oil or gas remain trapped as oil and gas in underground pockets if they encounter a proper dome blocking structure that is routinely sought by petroleum geologists. This process is driven by the radioactive heat in the earth's core.This abiotically (-not by biology) produced oil, oil from inorganic carbonates and not from the remains of dead life was long argued by the russians. This is very much unlike coal which is from former plant sources. This theory of abiotic creation of methane and other hydrocarbons has been confirmed by peer reviewed scientific papers that demonstrate the process at temperatures and pressures found 10's of miles into the earths crust . It has now been painfully reconfirmed by the mistakes of British Petroleum in the Gulf of Mexico. The Earth makes oil naturally. There is a multitude of sources of oil on this planet, the whole Caribbean plate appears to have huge oil resources trapped beneath it. The problem for oil companies is not lack of oil, it is how to foster the pretense that there is not enough so the price can be raised. FEAR MONGERING for profit is a better description of the oil industry.
The US is not at war in the middle East because of desperate oil needs (peak oil is a fraud !), rather because it is an economic and military choke point to control the politics and economies of the rest of the world. Remember the Henry Kissinger quote in GM food section of DON'Ts : " If you control oil you control politics, if you control food you control the world"). The same fact applies to the elevation of oil price by massive greed driven speculation without any sensible legal controls. Looked at from this perspective, US oil wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are just another attempt to totally control Middle East and Caucus oil resources in order to exercise total control over the world. Europe does not have the (US) massive oil base and wishes to be independent on the good nature of the undependable Russian controlled oil & gas supplies. US interests are global monopolistic control over oil (similar to the goals of the biologically insane GM food fiasco). An even darker picture is to be able to interdict any energy sources to Russia and China in the event of a US chosen first strike starting a global war (WW3). This would also explain our ringing of Russia with close-in military (missile and bomber aircraft) bases. Please note that Russia is not ringing the US with close in military bases. Russia is a second rate power with a second rate economy, despite many brilliant scientists and thinkers. Russia also has a large supply of nuclear weapons that could produce a global "permanent bad hair day" if we are to act so foolishly.
But were going to Destroy our Earth with human caused Rising Temperatures !
Returning to our focus on ecology, the human population expansion always permits a boggy man of global temperature warming to "FEAR MONGER" about. We will burst the 'Global Warming' Fear Mongering. In the graphs below, we see the recent temperature changes and the longer term geological changes along with the changes in CO2 levels in recent and more distant times. From the first graph we learn that over a short period of 4000 years, temperature normally varies with relatively profound alternations - long before human activity brought about an increase in CO2 levels due to our fuel usage. Indicated in the first graph is the importance of volcanic eruptions in blocking sunlight from reaching ground to heat the surface of the earth as profound cooling events. Some of these warming rises may be a consequence of a period of low volcanic activity that would otherwise prevent solar heating of earth.
In a longer period covering most of the last 65 million years of geologic history, the earth has experienced considerable variations that again could not be driven by human activities. Much of short term temperature changes are due to volcanic eruptions that spread a light absorbing smoke over much of the world with cooling consequences as light does not reach ground to heat it. Humans have only been around as such for some 2-2.5 million years and our industrial activity using high amounts of fuel is only about 100 years old.
From the combination of the first and second graphs one can see that there are long term trends that differ in time duration and magnitude of temperature swings. Several other factors can effect the temperatures of earth, namely the green house gases CH4 & CO2. Knowing that oil and natural gas are abiotically formed in the earth, there is an ongoing level of release of both CH4 and its oxidation in the atmosphere to CO2. The next graph of CO2 levels show's a clear rise within human industrialization. In spite of this, the average temperature of earth is not increasing very much. We are still said to be in an "interglacial" era for the numerous profound cold glacial ice ages that form our geologically recent past of >5 million years as seen in the second graph above. FEAR MONGERING about CO2 green house gas levels has been driven by the next graph, often termed the CO2 "Hockey stick" graph. This is the famous "hockey stick graph" predicting huge Temperature increased heating - that has not been seen.
The following NOA graph was from the recent report of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on contiguous US Temperatures. Does this look like massive unstoppable global warming? Again, global warming is FEAR MONGERING. It has specific purposes of allowing new economic bubble blowing in the form of Cap & Trade, ( a carbon tax to extract even more money and funny money in option like carbon offsets that can be bid up like oil to outrageous prices). Large oil corporations and big Banks support the Cap & Trade effort because it will massively rise the price of oil and force much greater taxes to support/bailout the BANKSTERS.
Oil Price rises were not scarcity driven, they were orchestrated with round trip trades . RICH SPECULATOR "A" sells huge amount of oil to RICH SPECULATOR "B" at grossly inflated price, then reverse "B" sells the same amount at same price to "A". No real oil was involved but, the transactions jacked up world oil price. This was done away from oversight on the ICE exchange in Europe that was founded by major American investment banks like Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, etc. who managed these sham round trip private trades. The same game is planned for Carbon Credits, agricultural commodities(starving the poor of the world to food riots around the world in 2007-8 with this same speculative round trip trades),and anything else that can be played by these BANKSTERS. The BANKSTERS need more bubbles for profit and solvency as they are all technically at bankruptcy levels due to their risky loans & derivative holdings. This is not ENTERPRISE CAPITALISM that takes some risks to makes useful things, but EXTORTION CAPITALISM.This is after the Federal Reserve and Congress bailed them out at your future tax dollar expense. You are the victims in these shams that are swindling you out of income in the same way that the BANKSTERS have arranged to get several full US GDP's (gross national product USA, estimated at 13-14 Trillion where the BANKSTERS are on track to get 23.7 Trillion US $ bailout as reported by the GAO (GovAccounting Office of Congress). The GDP is value of all goods and services for entire year period. BANKSTERS are now just back to the swindling ways of credit expansion then collapse and pick up properties at pennies on the dollar and repeat again and again. BANKSTERS basically own Congress and fully expect to continue this until the US and other countries are ruined.
I hope you may now appreciate why I was tempted to call this section Ecology vs. FEAR MONGERING. Our large corporations are fixed on ever higher returns, regardless of the human, ecological, or even survival costs. Not your local banker who is only a pawn in this game, bur the powerful financial elite have neither humanity nor morals. Right now, they run the US government and much of the world. Either citizens curtail their evil swindling and ecological damaging ways, or they will enslave us in an ecologically destroyed world that has been wrecked by mindless exploitation.
This is unworkable economic ecology! This is also to add further tax burdens and to suppress popular anger at the greatest ever theft of our tax dollars by BANKSTERS. All this to bail out the swindling bankers who brought this whole economic mess on. FDR( President Franklin Delano Roosevelt), called them "BANKSTERS" to highlight the connection to "GANGSTERS". This contrived fiction of global warming is now realized as BS in most of the world. Imagine, we are in an interglacial age and likely heading into a colder environment while this nonsense is being pushed for the further tax and GOVERNMENT EXTORTION reasons.
NOA graph was from the recent report of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on contiguous US Temperatures.
This understanding fits well with the study of temperature changes in recent glacial ages that demonstrate no such major runaway changes in temperature. This is shown below over the approximately 100-150 thousand year cycle of changing Temperatures versus repeating glacial ages. Temperature is the Blue Chart on top. Notice anything periodic - well before humans contributed any major amount of CO2 to the atmosphere. Global Warming is a FEAR MONGERING LIE to scare you. This should trigger awareness of a consistant process of attempting to fill each human with fear about the future - so the elite can take an ever increasing amount of the resources of the world. PLEASE SEE THE IMPORTANT VIDEO "The Story of Your Enslavement". This should be required viewing in all High School Classes and a focus of the mind of citizens. The financial elites of the world are the enemies of humanity.
When one looks at the full temperature history of Earth compiled from best scientific knowledge, one sees that the latest jerky up and down trend line (on the left) is definitely downward.
Guess what? Global Heating has been called off. That's what the recent temperature fluctuations are showing.
Our recent Holocene period temperature variation (about 12,000 years) has been greatly affected by the rapidly reoccurring glacial ages. We are in an interglacial age, not a massive runaway temperature rise.
Returning to our ecology, before I hear a chorus of "we are over fishing the oceans" or some other similar refrain, I concede that yes we are acting as a foolish spoiled child in trashing our environment and our ecosystem largely for profit without consideration of the ecological consequences. We could greatly increase the biological resources on this planet as much of the oceans of the world are not very productive due to the smaller size of primary productivity at the bottom of the food chain (primary solar energy harvesting) consisting of photosynthetic marine algae biomass (on which all higher forms of life depend). The contribution of kelp is minor relative to photosynthetic marine algae, and kelp requires temperatures under 68oF and relatively good land runoff nutrient sources.
This 'tropic ocean lack of abundant marine algae' life is largely due to limitations of iron concentration in the water. Iron (Fe) tends to rapidly precipitate out of ocean water (as insoluble rust). Imagine that, the beautiful clear waters of the tropics are deserts relative the the cold, low solar light levels of the near continent northern areas where enough iron is continually supplied by river runoff. This is illustrated by two maps below.
Note the discrepancy of high primary productivity of plankton (base of food chain) in primarily the cold waters of northern continental shelves compared to the high levels of solar energy delivered mostly at the equatorial regions. This otherwise wasted solar derived thermal energy is only used to drive the thermal-salinity driven ocean currents that control climate conditions. Tapping even a small amount of this abundant equatorial solar energy for food production would massively increase our world food production. What is needed is just a little iron and possibly some nitrate (tropical oceans) and some silicon for diatoms. When that is added in the open equatorial ocean, the local area just massively blooms in a pea soup colored photosynthetic algae bloom relative the the clear waters surrounding it. Most importantly this 'free' sunlight energy in the sunlight rich "near desert" like tropic oceans of the world will not displace high amounts of biological life (it's just not abundant there, only near land forms). We can do a limited augmentation of the normal process of Fe outflow from rivers and dust storms (as out of African sahara) that sprinkle Fe rich dust on the ocean in order to increase biomass of primary and then secondary bioproduction. In some areas of the typical Pacific Ocean, nitrogen (nitrate) is limiting rather than iron.
Our human history is full of needless slaughter of abundant animals. Instead, imagine a full algae, small marine invertebrate, small and large fish integrated floating fish farm in the tropic oceans. This is biologically sensible as it produces its own primary productivity as the basis of the food chain for this farm. We would not need to use the current techniques of clean scraping the ocean for "trash" fish feed (a stupid nonsense term) or worse - feeding our current farmed fish grain (including GM grain & soybeans) and now even animal "offal" (guts and such) from slaughter houses. Didn't we learn anything about feeding cows the slaughterhouse offal from other cows in the Mad Cow mess? Our industrialized animal farms are exposing us to a potential mixing of pathogens from a wide variety of animals that have never mixed before - that are potentially gaining novel new hosts. This is much like vaccines spreading simian cancer and potentially rous sarcoma chicken viruses to nearly the whole human race. This false "economy" may expose us to undreamed of new pathogen problems. This is unbelievably "BIOLOGICALLY STUPID".
A primary photosynthetic algae productivity harvested directly and also fed to higher levels of animals is smart farming. A biologically smart ocean fish farm would still produce wastes, but the dispersion would be to deep ocean rather than the horribly polluted costal fish farm pens that massively increase parasite load and costal pollution. The most massive human fish farming of these high sunlight near equatorial areas (thus huge potential biological productivity areas) would not cover even 1 % of these equatorial adjacent regions, so we can disregard drastically changing solar energy flows that influence ocean currents and thereby climates. Our use of iron to stimulate growth of primary productivity can take place in totally 'enclosed' large floating pens isolated from the surrounding ocean waters. Thus our iron requirements would be minimum and would not directly pollute the surrounding waters.
These large floating enclosed pens would be able to submerge in the event of powerful storms, only to resurface when the conditions were safe again. Locating these submergible farms in the North and South Pacific high pressure zones that generally keep storms away would minimize down time and wear and tear along with maximizing productivity. The larger arthropod(shrimp?) and fish holding tanks could be netted to allow waste dispersal, while the whole fish farm could be very, very slowly towed as little as a mile a day to maintain fresh unpolluted water for the fish and arthropods. Deep freeze equipted vessels could dock to clean and freeze fish, shrimp and collect the surplus algae for human nutrition. The earth is 71% oceans, but only about half the primary productivity (light harvesting algae) of the whole earth comes from the oceans. We could easily raise that to much higher levels at low cost. Sunlight is free, algae provided with iron and nitrate grows by itself, and fish are fed with the surplus. This is a good gardner's solution. We can use Terra preta to improve yields on land, land grown Spirulina to end global hunger within a year, and ocean farms to grow healthy food without polluting near shore areas. Why don't we? Because it does not appeal to the evil greed of the financial elite.FEAR MONGERING to keep you afraid is their main way to maintain their immoral system of theft of value.
Evidence indicates this algae growth is not likely to sequester carbon to lower CO2 levels.That is well handled by adding charcoal to terrestrial soil (black earth of Brazilian indians). Carbon sequestration into black soils massively increases the terrestrial plant biological yield and thus further lowers CO2 levels. The terrestrial soils are already the largest store of sequestered carbon, and can be made larger by inert charcoal levels up to 40 % that will aid fertility of the soil for at least 500 years, possibly more. Using the intense solar energy present in the tropical seas, we can provide excellent additional human food without major destructive impact on the other species of the biosphere. The particulars of this integrated farm will take some trial and error, but offer enormous benefit with few downsides.
Serious and useful critics like Jared Diamond (author of "Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed") have described how cultures can rapidly collapse due to changes in environment, climate, trade, military action or behaviors that destroyed their various biological support systems. This issue must be addressed.
We have already established that abundant sources of continuing geothermal energy and a continually replenished abiotic (not biological ) hydrocarbon creation sources as well as abundant reserves exist. Hydrocarbons are created abiotically by deep crustal temperatures and pressures and constitute a further elaboration of the normal carbon cycle that continually creates new hydrocarbon resources. When you have abundant continuing resources of energy, you can desalinate water, melt glacial water and protect human habitations and food production in the event of a major heating or cooling (a return to ice age temperatures) . Energy resources and human ingenuity are the keys to successfully dealing with altered environmental/climatic conditions. Since food production is largely energy intensive in the US, we can expect that food will only become a problems in the event of intentional sabotage by financial/political interests. Since much of the world is in the same condition, we can expect similar ability to accommodate unexpected changes in food production, though it may require a massive shift in resources to exploit these energy resources.
1. Population Numbers
This is some 23% more people on earth than now. Now we can feed the whole world with spirulina from and area half the US state of Indiana located in the American Southwest. This should drive home the nature of an ARTIFICIAL SCARCITY that lies at the heart of the "so called" market systems of the world. One may observe artificial scarcity by the levels of intentional discarding of items without a market clearing lowering of price. This is more common place than most realize, probably some 40-60% of perishable goods in US stores are discarded (tax write off - not market clearing). Markets manipulated to prevent real price discovery are not free markets. Instead, they are part of intentional ARTIFICIAL SCARCITY with political and social motives that are not about markets at all.
Most of the primary productivity of the earth is not on land but in the waters of the 71% of our Earth that is oceans. This especially includes oxygen production, the land is not the primary lungs of the planet. The tropical seas are practically barren relative to the massive productivity of the low light continental margins mostly located in the cold waters of the northern hemisphere. Plenty of room for a gardner to grow edible primary productivity and a shepherd to tend to fish and crustaceans rather than slaughter them all off. Arguments about food scarcity are the same FEAR MONGERING nonsense as Peak oil and Overpopulation ! The same goes for energy and the ability to produce desalinated water for our garden earth. The use of charcoal to produce the nearly endlessly fertile "terra preta de indios" (Black earth of the Brazilian Indians) worldwide and ending the "BIOLOGICALLY STUPID" mono cropping would restore our farmlands. An end to over-eating of meats (but not reasonable amounts) would spare us the factory farm nightmare of infection and environmental damage that even threaten vegetarian spinach eaters with factory farm bacterial pathogen rich wastes. This is more about our stupid folly and the greed of powerful interests rather than our numbers.
2. Population Impacts.
I totally agree, but the horrendously
wasteful first world behavior that is predicated on endless exploitation
of the natural world. A similar capitalism exploitation occurs toward
citizens in our own culture and especially second and third world cultures.
This is a cultural behavior even the first world can no longer tolerate.
We must agree on humane choices of what we want for our planet and our
common human bonds. What we need is a meaningful human life of contributions
and rewards, not the stupid piling up of more garbage trinkets we neither
use or care about. This living through things rather than using things
to live well and have meaningful relationships that contribute to the
quality of life on this earth is what is needed. No more fishing out
the oceans, no more destruction of third world environments for needless
and STUPID 'cheap by exploitation' short term abundance in the first
world. Most of all no more insane wars. We can have abundance and global
connection without destroying and despoiling the world. Much of our
economic problems in the developed world arise from the deliberate substitution
of exploitative wage differentials in third world countries to gut the
industrial and technological edge of the developed world so BANKSTERS
can get a little more profit.
Computers and communications
become more powerful and smaller and less energy intensive linking us
to the whole globe of humans. Our ability to produce abundant food of
a wide variety of types keeps improving. How many centuries do we have
to keep hearing the same 'Malthusian' "drek" that never comes
The powerful that shape society have
a desperate need to convince everyone that like the Black Queen in Alice
in Wonderland, 'we must run as hard as we can to stay in place'. This
is not for a good life, this is to ensure more wealth and power for
the powerful by driving up ARTIFICIAL
SCARCITY, insecurity, and fear in citizens.
You already have a glimmer of how horrific the profit motive has become
with respect to vaccine caused autism and contamination of nearly the
whole human species with non-human viruses we would otherwise never
encountered. This is the problem, not abundance. We need to gain a common
core of values that is shared world wide, not each insanely trying to
grab the last resource for themselves. Lacking this, we shall all suffer
from individual self interest ruining the resources of survival ('Tragedy
of the Commons') on a massive scale.
Almost all of the systems in the US
are incredibly wasteful and dysfunctional. Our transportation system
in major cities is nearing gridlock due to absence of longer term plans
and a culture driven by absence of 'the common good as a standard'.
The same can be said for almost everything from creation of toxic wastes
to the cancerous spread of houses across too much of what should be
allowed to be natural lands. Much of this is driven by pure corruption
and venial profit motive. Again a Tragedy of the Commons - but remember
the exploiters are profiting from this foolish tragedy.
of the world should NOT become like the insanity of the rat race exploitative
driven first world. It is based on the idea of continual ever greater
magnitude exploitation of earth for profit/power.
This way lies collapse and horrific tragedy. The
current not so free market capitalism is an enemy of survival.
We must find a way to keep the good of incentives for initiative and
innovation while we slowly strangle the remains of the exploitative
past. Human beings need to arrive
at doing useful good for themselves and their fellows by something other
than fear and greed. We simply must become
wiser. Most of the stupid wasteful over consumption and environmental
impact of the developed world lies in our substitution of things and
"experiences" for meaningful relations and community.
We can be intelligent gardner's and shepherd's of our planet while taking pressure off the endangered biosystems. Right now we are not. We are still in this stupid "exploit the earth" mode. This is not in our genes, rather it is in specific policies that can be altered. In spite of FEAR MONGERING that has it's own political and economic agenda, it is not so much overpopulated as needlessly injuring the ecosystems with poisons and destruction by stupid exploitation that poisons our only earth. In short, human stupidity and stupid greed. We still need to be mindful that natural ecosystems stabilize our fragile one of a kind "small blue green world". We can aid and even augment these natural ecosystems with wise acts to improve the distribution of bountiful life on this planet. There is no intrinsic reason that as much as 30% of our planets surface in the form of tropical oceans need be so barren.
This absence of intelligent use and a creative gardner's or shepherd's approach to our world is largely related to limited insight and also to the greed of vested interests who want their profit from already existing earth damaging industries that are generating so much of this human related ecological disaster.
POST SCRIPT: DEEP HORIZON DISASTER
HOW BP HAS BECOME THE WORST ANTI-GARDNER:
The release of huge amounts of oil into the depths of the Gulf of Mexico may be a first for human ignorance. We appear to have triggered a potential cessation of the worlds "Thermohaline" circulation of heat from hot oceans to cooler locations that tends to even out the climates of the world and mix our various oceans. Under the all the oceans of the world run something like rivers containing highly dense salty cold water largely created in the arctic (North Pole) where ice formation excludes salt that increases the density of the nearby salt water and strong winds remove water over certain regions of the north Atlantic to produce a denser saltier colder water. This denser salt water sinks and seeks lower potential in the Atlantic Ocean where deep ocean abysmal trenches exit. This more dense inflow tends to push less dense older (more diluted) inflows further south. When the pushed out older more dilute cold saline water reaches the southern end of the Atlantic ocean it can flow eastward becoming yet more dilute as if flows toward the warmer Indian and Pacific Oceans. Slowly the dilution and warming cause this water to rise and be heated to retrace the warm water path that flows back into the Atlantic Ocean driven by the surface by winds that force it up toward the Gulf of Mexico where its warmth is increased. This warm surface current then flows by surface wind pattern up the eastern coast of the US and branches off toward Europe when it reaches the North Carolina Grand Banks. This cyclic process moves warm surface tropical Pacific ocean water into the Atlantic where it delivers warmth to the lower east cost of the US and much of Europe. This cyclic process tends to moderate the colder climates of less thermally favored regions of our world. It also makes our oceans a global connected slowly mixing system.
What this surface warm water transport system depends upon is a rather sharp salt concentrations distinction (separation) from surrounding water that does not dilute the effects of this circulation, otherwise it would rapidly be come dispersed locally. This is not a problem for the denser higher saline cold water that is merely following density stratification. The formation of cold denser salt water makes the Atlantic slightly saltier that the Pacific ocean, despite the slow mixing.
A major problem has been introduced by British Petroleum's massive release of possibly many hundreds of millions of gallons of oil into the depths of the Gulf of Mexico. It is being kept down there by the dispersant Corexit 9500 - as rather small bits of oil. When you introduce oil in to a Thermohaline system, it breaks up the separation of warm low saline surface current from the surroundings - and thus BREAKS the continued flow. This is due to the This interruption of the worlds thermal energy redistribution system will have profound effects on the climate and the ability to grow traditional crops in such northern regions of Eurasia. Western Europe would be much colder without the Gulf Stream Current bring warm gulf of Mexico water to the colder region of Western Europe and airborne moisture that delivers nourishing rains.
Red streams indicate warm low saline wind driven surface currents that migrate north due to prevailing winds (also circumnavigate Antarctic). Blue streams indicate cold high saline (formed by glacier melt release trapped salt that sinks to travel slowly south until they branch away from the Antarctic continent to continue eastward (western direction blocked by shallow South American - Antarctica Drakes Passage) to warm seas in which they are diluted and up well (lower density) to become warmed by the intense solar energy present in the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean. This "Thermohaline currents" are also called "meridional overturning circulation" which emphasizes the movement along North-South Longitudinal lines (meridians in the Atlantic) with the low salt warm surface currents wind driven north and the higher saline density cold water traveling south along the abysmal (deep) parts of the Atlantic ocean. This meridianal movement is not possible in the Pacific because of the relatively shallow depths of the Alaska-Siberia channel. Thus, the warm tropical Pacific pumps warm water currents driven by wind into the Atlantic ocean where it travels north till cooled sinking from accumulation of higher saline density. Note that the Warm surface current enters into the very warm Gulf of Mexico and exits between Florida and Cuba. The rewarmed current is then wind driven north toward Europe where it moderates what would ordinarily be a much colder climate. The presence of considerable oil in the water may interfere with the looping current in the Gulf of Mexico and decrease the delivery of warmth to Europe. This would largely alter climate to the colder in Europe and northern Eurasia. These flows also affect other climate conditions and help to regulate the amount of sea ice in the polar regions.
Scientists believe that every time this ThermoHaline circulation heat redistribution is interrupted, we descend into an ice age in the Northern Hemisphere. As stated in our discussion of Global Warming, the earth has been oscillating between warm and cold (ice ages) periods for many cycles comprising at least many millions of years. We are in a relatively warm interglacial period in the geological time scale. The last Ice Age was some 13 thousand years ago. Recent evidence from yearly layers of a deep German crater lake show that when last time the the Thermohaline redistribution (comprising the Gulf Stream) was interrupted, we enter an Ice age WITHIN A SINGLE YEAR ! Congratulations to BP, you may have sent us into a new Ice Age. This is an era of massive Corporate irresponsibility (Goldman Sachs, the FED, BP, Monsanto, etc.). We must end this before they end most of us!
This massive oil interference in the world wide redistribution of thermal energy from the sun could severely impact ocean phytoplankton that produce the "source of the Oceans's food chain of primary productivity" and also land crop productivity as well as the living conditions of affected areas. Human interference with the larger geological effects of our world has been almost absent in our history. For the first time in the history of our species, we may have REALLY SCREWED UP A MAJOR GEOLOGICAL PROCESS THAT STABILIZES OUR CLIMATE, FOOD CROP PRODUCTION, & OCEAN BIOPRODUCTIVITY. What we are seeing around the world now are very high temperatures in Russia and Japan, with extreme cold temperatures in Argentina (killing many beef cattle) and Peru (millions of dead fish in lakes). Unexpected torrential rains are occurring in China and Pakistan with changes in the Jet Stream that travels high above the bottom Troposphere layer of our atmosphere. If these conditions lead to substantial crop failures, we very well may experience famines and extreme social/political disorder. We cannot now know if the Great Conveyer Belt of Thermal energy is only temporarily damaged or semi-permanently injured or destroyed. We may have achieved a new first for humans, REALLY MESSING UP A MAJOR GEOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF THE PLANET THAT STABILIZED OUR CLIMATES, FOOD PRODUCTION, AND SOCIETY.
PS: If you doubted the abiological origin of oil (but not coal which is a "fossil fuel"), the presence of as much as a Mt. Everest of Oil and super high natural gas pressures arising from deep in the earth should be rather difficult to explain. The earth is constantly making oil from subducted CaCO3 (shells of dead animals mostly) that is placed under super high pressures when subducted under continents in a reducing environment (just as Mendeleev and Bertold suggested in the late 1800's). We have more than enough oil and energy resources on earth for human needs. We can put them to good purposes or use them for more stupid wars of conquest and more BP like disasters. Fouling our earth for the profit idiocy of the powerful is no way to live on this earth.
UPDATE (5 Dec 2010)
The cold "snap" in Europe the has seen temperatures fall to -30oC in Wales(GB) and similar in Poland may not be a temporary event. Thermohaline circulation heat distribution impairment as shown by reduced flow of hot surface water up from South America into the Gulf, and then a lesser magnitude of the Gulf Stream may not be a momentary event. The North Atlantic Drift to warm Europe (esp GB, Norway, Sweden, & Germany, Poland, Russia) is clearly not very good this winter. We may expect a longer colder winter. Since the Jet Stream is altered by the decrease in warm moist air reaching these Northern European regions, we can expect further weather discomfort. Not an mini-Ice age yet, but just hope that the geological system is big enough to shrug off all that oil in the gulf that is more rapidly "dispersing" the heat transfer of the gulf stream.